Java Threads

Question : What is synchronization in respect to multi-threading?
Answer : With respect to multi-threading, synchronization is the capability to control the access of multiple threads to shared resources. Without synchronization, it is possible for one thread to modify a shared variable while another thread is in the process of using or updating same shared variable. This usually leads to significant errors.

Question : Explain different way of using thread?
Answer : The thread could be implemented by using Runnable interface or by extending the Thread class. The Runnable is more advantageous, when you are going for multiple inheritance.

Question : What is the difference between Thread.start() & Thread.run() method?
Answer : Thread.start() method (native method) of Thread class actually does the job of running the Thread.run() method in a thread. If we directly call Thread.run() method it will executed in same thread, so does not solve the purpose of creating a new thread.

Question : Why do we need run() & start() method both. Can we achieve it with only run method?
Answer : We need run() & start() method both because JVM needs to create a separate thread which can not be differentiated from a normal method call. So this job is done by start method native implementation which has to be explicitly called.
Another advantage of having these two methods is we can have any object run as a thread if it implements Runnable interface. This is to avoid JavaΓÇÖs multiple inheritance problems which will make it difficult to inherit another class with Thread.

Question : What is ThreadLocal class? How can it be used?
Answer :

– A thread-local variable effectively provides a separate copy of its value for each thread that uses it.
– ThreadLocal instances are typically private static fields in classes that wish to associate state with a thread

– In case when multiple threads access a ThreadLocal instance, separate copy of Threadlocal variable is maintained for each thread.
– Common use is seen in DAO pattern where the DAO class can be singleton but the Database connection can be maintained separately for each thread. (Per Thread Singleton)

Good article on ThreadLocal: http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-threads3.html

Question : When InvalidMonitorStateException is thrown? Why?
Answer :

This exception is thrown when you try to call wait()/notify()/notifyAll() any of these methods for an Object from a point in your program where u are NOT having a lock on that object.(i.e. u r not executing any synchronized block/method of that object and still trying to call wait()/notify()/notifyAll())

wait(), notify() and notifyAll() all throw IllegalMonitorStateException. since This exception is a subclass of RuntimeException so we r not bound to catch it (although u may if u want to). and being a RuntimeException this exception is not mentioned in the signature of wait(), notify(), notifyAll() methods.

Question : What is the difference between sleep(), suspend() and wait() ?
Answer :

Thread.sleep() sends the current thread into the "Not Runnable" state for some amount of time. The thread keeps the monitors it has aquired — i.e. if the thread is currently in a synchronized block or method no other thread can enter this block or method. If another thread calls t.interrupt() it will wake up the sleeping thread. Note that sleep is a static method, which means that it always affects the current thread (the one that is executing the
sleep method). A common mistake is to call t.sleep() where t is a different thread; even then, it is the current thread that will sleep, not the t thread.

t.suspend() is deprecated. Using it is possible to halt a thread other than the current thread. A suspended thread keeps all its monitors and since this state is not interruptable it is deadlock prone.

object.wait() sends the current thread into the "Not Runnable" state, like sleep(), but with a twist. Wait is called on a object, not a thread; we call this object the "lock object." Before lock.wait() is called, the current thread must synchronize on the lock object; wait() then releases this lock, and adds the thread to the "wait list" associated with the lock. Later, another thread can synchronize on the same lock object and call lock.notify(). This wakes up the original,
waiting thread. Basically, wait()/notify() is like sleep()/interrupt(), only the active thread does not need a direct pointer to the sleeping thread, but only to the shar

Question : What happens when I make a static method as synchronized?
Answer : Synchronized static methods have a lock on the class "Class", so when a thread enters a synchronized static method, the class itself gets locked by the thread monitor and no other thread can enter any static synchronized methods on that class. This is unlike instance methods, as multiple threads can access "different synchronized instance methods" (not same method) at same time.

Question : Can a thread call a non-synchronized instance method of an Object when a synchronized method is being executed ?
Answer :

Yes, a Non synchronized method can always be called without any problem. In fact Java does not do any check for a non-synchronized method. The Lock object check is performed only for synchronized methods/blocks. In case the method is not declared synchronized Jave will call even if you are playing with shared data. So you have to be careful while doing such thing. The decision of declaring a method as synchronized has to be based on critical section access. If your method does not access a critical section (shared resource or data structure) it need not be declared synchronized.

Below is the example which demonstrates this, The Common class has two methods
synchronizedMethod1() and method1()
MyThread class is calling both the methods in separate threads,

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public class Common { 
public synchronized void synchronizedMethod1() { 
System.out.println("synchronizedMethod1 called"); 
try { 
Thread.sleep(1000); 
} catch (InterruptedException e) { 
e.printStackTrace(); 
} 
System.out.println("synchronizedMethod1 done"); 
} 
public void method1() { 
System.out.println("Method 1 called"); 
try { 
Thread.sleep(1000); 
} catch (InterruptedException e) { 
e.printStackTrace(); 
} 
System.out.println("Method 1 done"); 
} 
} 

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public class MyThread extends Thread { 
private int id = 0; 
private Common common; 

public MyThread(String name, int no, Common object) { 
super(name); 
common = object; 
id = no; 
} 

public void run() { 
System.out.println("Running Thread" + this.getName()); 
try { 
if (id == 0) { 
common.synchronizedMethod1(); 
} else { 
common.method1(); 
} 
} catch (Exception e) { 
e.printStackTrace(); 
} 
} 

public static void main(String[] args) { 
Common c = new Common(); 
MyThread t1 = new MyThread("MyThread-1", 0, c); 
MyThread t2 = new MyThread("MyThread-2", 1, c); 
t1.start(); 
t2.start(); 
} 
} 

Here is the output of the program

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Running ThreadMyThread-1
synchronizedMethod1 called
Running ThreadMyThread-2
Method 1 called
synchronizedMethod1 done
Method 1 done

This shows that method1() – is called even though the synchronizedMethod1() was in execution.

Question : Can two threads call two different synchronized instance methods of an Object?
Answer :

No. If a object has synchronized instance methods then the Object itself is used a lock object for controlling the synchronization. Therefore all other instance methods need to wait until previous method call is completed.

See the below sample code which demonstrate it very clearly. The Class Common has 2 methods called synchronizedMethod1() and synchronizedMethod2() MyThread class is calling both the methods

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        public class Common { <br />
        public synchronized void synchronizedMethod1() { <br />
        System.out.println("synchronizedMethod1 called"); <br />
        try { <br />
        Thread.sleep(1000); <br />
        } catch (InterruptedException e) { <br />
        e.printStackTrace(); <br />
        } <br />
        System.out.println("synchronizedMethod1 done"); <br />
        } <br />
        <br />
        public synchronized void synchronizedMethod2() { <br />
        System.out.println("synchronizedMethod2 called"); <br />
        try { <br />
        Thread.sleep(1000); <br />
        } catch (InterruptedException e) { <br />
        e.printStackTrace(); <br />
        } <br />
        System.out.println("synchronizedMethod2 done"); <br />
        } <br />
        } <br />
        view plainprint?<br />
        public class MyThread extends Thread { <br />
        private int id = 0; <br />
        private Common common; <br />
        <br />
        public MyThread(String name, int no, Common object) { <br />
        super(name); <br />
        common = object; <br />
        id = no; <br />
        } <br />
        <br />
        public void run() { <br />
        System.out.println("Running Thread" + this.getName()); <br />
        try { <br />
        if (id == 0) { <br />
        common.synchronizedMethod1(); <br />
        } else { <br />
        common.synchronizedMethod2(); <br />
        } <br />
        } catch (Exception e) { <br />
        e.printStackTrace(); <br />
        } <br />
        } <br />
        <br />
        public static void main(String[] args) { <br />
        Common c = new Common(); <br />
        MyThread t1 = new MyThread("MyThread-1", 0, c); <br />
        MyThread t2 = new MyThread("MyThread-2", 1, c); <br />
        t1.start(); <br />
        t2.start(); <br />
        } <br />
    }</p> 
 

Question : What is a deadlock?
Answer : Deadlock is a situation where two or more threads are blocked forever, waiting for each other. This may occur when two threads, each having a lock on one resource, attempt to acquire a lock on the other’s resource. Each thread would wait indefinitely for the other to release the lock, unless one of the user processes is terminated. In terms of Java API, thread deadlock can occur in following conditions:
When two threads call Thread.join() on each other.
When two threads use nested synchronized blocks to lock two objects and the blocks lock the same objects in different order.
What is Starvation? and What is a Livelock?

Starvation and livelock are much less common a problem than deadlock, but are still problems that every designer of concurrent software is likely to encounter.
LiveLock

Livelock occurs when all threads are blocked, or are otherwise unable to proceed due to unavailability of required resources, and the non-existence of any unblocked thread to make those resources available. In terms of Java API, thread livelock can occur in following conditions:
When all the threads in a program execute Object.wait(0) on an object with zero parameter. The program is live-locked and cannot proceed until one or more threads call Object.notify() or Object.notifyAll() on the relevant objects. Because all the threads are blocked, neither call can be made.
When all the threads in a program are stuck in infinite loops.
Starvation

Starvation describes a situation where a thread is unable to gain regular access to shared resources and is unable to make progress. This happens when shared resources are made unavailable for long periods by "greedy" threads. For example, suppose an object provides a synchronized method that often takes a long time to return. If one thread invokes this method frequently, other threads that also need frequent synchronized access to the same object will often be blocked.

Starvation occurs when one thread cannot access the CPU because one or more other threads are monopolizing the CPU.

In Java, thread starvation can be caused by setting thread priorities inappropriately. A lower-priority thread can be starved by higher-priority threads if the higher-priority threads do not yield control of the CPU from time to time.
This is not an exhaustive list of questions and I am sure I have missed many important questions from Multi-threading area. Can you think of a question which should be included in this list? Please feel free to share any question/suggestion in the comments section.

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